Industrial Revolution: Economic Revolution
Everyone in the world thought a revolution was something a person had to die. But the Industrial Revolution changes that. The revolution came around late 1700 and early 1800. Also historians disagreed about the effects of the revolution on people’s lives.
England had a pro-business government. A policy called laissez-faire was created by business people because the business and industries would be free as possible from the government regulation. The people who supported laissez-faire opposed to any government regulation that would not profit them like wage increase. The theory of the policy was that competition would provide greatest goods for the greatest number of people. That created wealthy and good productive economy. Also the wealth created by business benefited everyone in society. A source of power was found that would revolutionize.
It was first found in Great Britain then the world. As the revolution grew, investors and financial institutions provided money for the expansion of industrialization. Laissez-faire helped Great Britain in industry by whole new range of technologies that improved greatly in the revolution like inventions in textile industry in coal and iron industry in ceramics completely changed the world. These inventions made business and industries grow enormously. Inventors on the other hand played a good role creating new and better machinery. Therefore more goods and manufacture in short time was important because new inventions came constantly. Changes were fast during the early part of the revolution because of new organizational strategies to increase productivity. The revolution of USA took more than a century. Samuel later started American industrial Revolution in 1790. Besides to increase production, it needed at least two more elements for impact.
Firstly, an expanded system of credit “capital” secondly, transportation for raw martial to reach customers. State government played key role for new banking institution and increased transportation. After the revolution ended, most historians agreed that the revolution was a great turning point on people’s lives. The revolution changed the western world to rural and agricultural society to urban and industrial society. Industrialization brought many benefits but created bog amounts of problems we tend to see today like problem of air, land, and water pollution.
Britain had many people who were willing to work “labor Supply”. People needed new kinds of work because of new farm technologies. Also they had many unemployed people. Britain had parliament that made business grow and also a government. Britain had a lot of capital that was stolen from India and shipped back to Britain. Also Britain had the most capital than anywhere else. They had technological advantage like raw materials-coal, cheap source of power for machines, a labor supply, stable and pro-business governments, capital, technology, and a good transportation that made industrial revolution possible. Britain had many colonies so Britain got raw materials from the colonies and manufactured goods then Britain supplied back to the colonies. Also Britain contained elements for industrialization. Britain had a good increasing population.
The Textile Industry did a important role for the revolution and probably be the oldest industry in the world today. Textile formed largest items in the medieval Europe. Britain was a rich and powerful country in synthetic fibres today plants and animals. Fibres before the 20th century was wool from sheep, silk from silk worm, and linen from flax. Wool had been important for Britain because Britain’s climate was great for raising sheep. It was also profitable to maintain herds of sheep. British wool would be harvested fairly cheap and turn into cloth. Textile industry is cloth and cloth products. British wools were high quality and woolen cloth was high demand in Europe. Cotton was not known but wool was known. Soon cotton was the largest single industry.
Rapid expansions of cotton manufacturing were in the mid-18th century. Ell Whitey invented the cotton gin. The invention could have spread over 100 pounds of cotton in a day. Later European textile industries were left behind by development in Britain. For Britain the textile industry was a major factor to gain new colonies. Cotton and wool industry developed and cotton was supplied from USA to Britain and USA got cotton from India. A lot of people were involved in the textile industry for Britain. Cheap cotton advantaged to Britain in cotton industry. After arrivals of factories cost reduced and production increased. Later cotton industry took over wool industry.
New inventions in the early days of the revolution were manufacture of cloth. Inventions that speed up the process of making cloth made a fortune for the inventor. John Kay and James Hargreaves went from rags to riches because of their amazing invention profited for the textile industry. Flying Shuttle was the most important inventions in the textile industry and was invented by John Kay in 1733. The shuttle made weaving so much faster and made weaving operate by one or two workers. The shuttle used springs and levers to pull the shuttle back after it have crossed the thread. The shuttle put 1 of 2 workers out of job. Weavers used up yarn faster than the spinners would produce so the Flying Shuttle made the yarn supply even worse. Inventors tried to put in the gaps as fast as possible. In 1764 James Hargreaves built the Spinning Jenny. Jenny was the name of his wife. The Spinning Jenny made the spinner to spin off number of threads at a time. Therefore one spinner did the work of several spinners. Hargreaves was a poor spinner and he tried to keep his invention secret using it for himself. The new invention became known soon. Later Spinning Jennies were used all over England. Hargreaves became a very wealthy man and his invention did a important movement for the spinning part of the textile industry.
Richard Arkwright developed the “Water Frame” which was faster than Jenny. Arkwright also became wealthy. Samuel Compton invented a machine called “mule”. Mule was combining the best features of Spinning Jenny and Water Frame. Many other inventions followed. Later plentiful of good supplies were available. New factories being built needed large to store large machines and workers. The textile industry became a factory industry dependent upon power.
Iron and Coal Industry was also important to the Industrial Revolution. They began to grow much faster after 1750. After when Abraham Darby invented the process for better cast iron. Darby used coke to make better iron. Later improvements came quickly by inventor. Cast products were available everywhere because it was cheaper and easier to produce than metal products. Cast irons were used for everything. Larger cast iron factories were built and England became the world’s leading producer of cast iron. Coal Industry was linked to iron industry because coal was used in iron manufacture. As the iron industry grew coal industry grew with it. Stream engine used coal making greater grown for the coal industry. Everyone burned coal for heat in England’s winter. England had lots of coal deposits in many areas. Coal deposits were far underground mines that were dangerous to work. Coal produced methane gas which explodes very easily. Coal dusts are also high toxic. Coal miners died young because from accidents or from “Black Lung”. Black Lung is a disease cause by breathing coal dust. Miners worked from early mornings to late nights. Also their wages were low. But without coal, there would not have been a Industrial Revolution.
The steam machine was another big industry. Other industries also became dependent upon source of power. A lot of industries close to water could use water wheel to run machines. The factories that were not big had a major problem of lack of power. One big problem was water seeping in the deep coal mines. The problem was solved and the first breakthrough happened when Thomas Newcomen invented a machine that harnessed the power of compressed steam the machine pumped the water out of the mines but did not work well. The real breakthrough was when James Watt figured out a watt to get the maximum use of Newcomen’s machine. Watt’s new steam machine was more practical and efficient, producing power with a little waste. First, Pump water out of the mines then Watt adapted the machine so that could drive machines. After that Watt had solved the problem of powering the factory age. The industrial revolution changed the world and the revolution caused the goods and bad things today.
Question # 1: what was the most important invention in the textile industry?
Question #2: what was the policy that the business people make the government to sign?
Question #3: what did Abraham Darby invent?
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