Kingdoms and Empires in Eurasia in 1492

Kingdoms and Empires in Eurasia before 1492
By Harman, Galen, Corbyn, Trenten

There were many empires and kingdoms in Europe and Asia before and after 1492. Down below is information on some of those royalties.
The Byzantine Empire (330AD-1453)
The Byzantine Empire also known as the eastern Roman Empire is a Latin and Greek spoken civilization. It was founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine l, when he converted to Christianity and declared a new Rome in the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium. He founded the city of Constantinople and named it after himself and making it the capital of his empire. This empire had a spawning of rich tradition of art, literature, and learning as a serving military buffer between European states and threats of invasions from Asia. It surrounds the Mediterranean Sea and the land around it. The Byzantine Empire survived for centuries after the fall of Rome in 476AD which ended the Roman Empire in the west. During the crusades, the Seljuk Turks attacked the city and the Emperor Alexius l, turned to the west for help. The Byzantine Empire finally came to an end in 1453 with the fall of Constantinople which was taken over by the Ottoman Empire who renamed the city Istanbul. Video link for the Byzantine Empire

The Mughal Empire (1526-1857)

The Mughal Empire was an Islamic empire which expanded over the Indian Subcontinent. Babar, who was a central-Asian Turko conqueror, founded the empire in India in 1526 after destroying the Delhi Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, and became the first Mughal emperor. The Mughals were a dynasty of a Chagatai Turks origin. Some Hindi Indian rulers found the Mughals a threat, while others found them useful and gained benefit from them. All the Mughal emperors are descendants of the Mongol Empire founder Genghis Khan through his son Chagatai Khan and Timur. The greatest emperor was Akbar the Great who expanded the empire by a whole lot. The capital cities of the empire were Lahore and Agra. The golden age of Mughal architecture happened during the reign of the 5th emperor Shah Jahan which includes the Taj Mahal. The empire began to fall apart in the 17th century, due to British arrival and the founding of the East India Company. The Maratha Empire began to take over the territories controlled by the Mughals in the 18th century. The Mughal Empire was completely destroyed and declined in 1857 during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Bahadur Shah ll was the last Mughal emperor and the British Raj took over the remaining parts of the empire. Video link for The Mughal Empire

The Ottoman Empire (1299-1922)

The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish empire founded in north-west Anatolia in 1299. It was the world’s longest lasting empire and also one of the largest. The empire was founded by Oghuz Turks under Osmen Bey. The Ottoman Empire was ruled by Sultans and was the one to capture Constantinople and put the Byzantine Empire to an end. The Ottomans controlled half the Roman’s land and that area was valuable because of the Indian Ocean Trade which they cut off. They also controlled all of the Mediterranean Sea trade. Two of the greatest Ottoman leaders were Mehmet the Conqueror who ruled from 1451-1481, and the other one was Suleiman the Magnificent who ruled from 1520-1566. Under the rule of Suleiman, the ottomans began a naval power. The Ottomans and the Venetians added value to each other by their roles. A program was started by the Ottomans called the “devshirme”, which captured Christian boys and converted them to Islam. The boys were either raised in the military or became bureaucrats who collected taxes and help advise the Sultan. The Ottoman Empire came to a complete decline in World War l. Video link for the Ottoman Empire

The Mongol Empire (1206-1368)

The Mongol Empire was the world’s largest land based empire. The founder of the empire was Genghis Khan who declared himself the supreme ruler of all Mongols. The Mongols have conquered almost all of Asia. After Genghis Khan’s death, the Mongol’s split up into four dynasties, the Yuan Dynasty in China, the Ilhkanate in Persia, and the Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia, and finally the Golden Horde in Russia. The Mongol’s army had about 130,000 men and the Mongols were so terrifying that some of the people would surrender the moment they arrived. They also got rid of the feudal system and created international law. They also made the first free trade zone. Their primary combat was archery on horse. After Genghis Khan’s death, the Mongol Empire went from Mongolia to the Caspian Sea. The Mongols could have opened up the Black Death. The Mongol Empire came to an end when its dynasties began to decline or got overthrown. Video link for the Mongol Empire

The Tang Dynasty (618CE-907CE)

The Tang Dynasty was one of the Chinese dynasties and it was also known as China’s golden age. Started in 618CE, its first glorious period was in 627CE and went to 649CE. During the glorious period there was no corruption and no national boundaries were open to foreign countries. The Dynasty began at a time of chaos when the former emperor was killed by his chancellor. The second glorious period began in 712 under the Emperor Xuanzong’s reign. Under his rule the economy, politics, and the culture developed rapidly. The dynasty began to decline generation by generation. Gun powder was invented in the 9th century during the Tang dynasty. The earliest written formula for gun powder was found in the 11th century. The last Tang emperor was Emperor Ai who was forced to give up his throne by Chancellor Zhu Quanzhong which ended the great dynasty. Video link for the Tang Dynasty and other dynasties

Block A: Social Studies- Ms.Menzies and Mr. Parker
Roles: Researcher- Galen Gorospe
Editor- Harman Chhina
Media Director- Corbyn Williams
Project Coordinator- Trenten Mah

Works Cited
“China Tang Dynasty (618-907): Establishment, Glorious Period, Decline.” China Tang Dynasty (618-907): Establishment, Glorious Period, Decline. TravelChinaGuide, n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2014.
Green, John. “Venice and the Ottoman Empire: Crash Course World History #19.” YouTube. YouTube, May-June 2012. Web. 31 Oct. 2014.
Green, John. “Wait For It…The Mongols!: Crash Course World History #17.” YouTube. YouTube, 17 May 2012. Web. 31 Oct. 2014.
“History of Gunpowder.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 27 Oct. 2014. Web. 29 Oct. 2014.

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