The Counter Reformation (Catholic Church)
The Catholic reformation was a counter revival towards the Protestant rebellion. The Protestant Reformation sparked a change in the Catholic Church.
The Counter Reformation originally took place in Western Europe in the 16th century. Martin Luther, John Calvin and Henry V|| were few of the many reformers that challenged and questioned the authority in the churches. This period began with the Council of Trent 1545-1563. Pope Paul ||| initiated the Council of Trent, with the main goal of addressing multiple issues throughout the church to stop conflict within the church. The commission of the council of the Trent dealt with issues such as: corrupt priests and bishops, indulgences, and financial absences. The Council, however, also upheld the fundamental structure of the Medieval Church. The church rejected all compromises with the Protestants as they went against the main beliefs of Roman Catholic Faith. New religious orders were a very important part of the reforms. Religions that imitate and modify practices of Catholicism are set examples of catholic renewal.
Theology: the study of the nature of God
Check out this video on the Protestant Reformation:
The protestant reformation was a major 16th century European movement aimed at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. This event was an upheaval that splintered catholic Europe. The protestant’s main goal was to direct the public’s attention to what they saw as the flaws of the church. Some examples of what was seen as corrupt by the Protestants were the selling of indulgences, misled bishops and priests as well as financial obstructions. There were many important leader authorities in the protestant structure they are as follows.
Precursors to the Reformation
John Wycliffe (1330-84)
Attacked what he saw as corruptions within the church, these included the selling of indulgences, pilgrimages, the excessive veneration of saints, and the low moral and intellectual standards of ordained priests. Wycliffe also refused to accept the doctrine transubstantiation because he believed that the bible was sole standard of Christian doctrine.
John Huss (1369-1415)
He was a Bohemian priest, excommunicated in 1410. Huss followed Wycliffe’s teaching closely, also translating Wycliffe’s Trialogus (a dialogue between 3 people) into Czechoslovakian. He believed in predestination, regarded the bible and argued that Christ rather than any official is the true head of the church.
Prominent figures in the Reformation
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
In 1517 Luther nailed his 95 theses onto a Wittenberg Church door. These theses were Latin propositions opposing the manner in which indulgences (satisfaction) were being sold in order to raise money for the building of Saint Peter’s in Rome. Martin believed that the Catholic Church was corrupt and he started to protest.
Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)
Swiss theologian and leader of early Reformation movements in Switzerland. Vigorously denounces the sale of indulgences in 1518.
John Calvin (1509-64)
Calvin was a French theologian and reformer who fled religious persecution in France and settled in Geneva in 1536. He instituted a form of Church government in Genvana, which has become known as the Presbyterian Church. He insisted on reforms including: the congregational singing of the Psalms as part of Church worship, the teaching of catechism and confession of faith to children, and the enforcement of a strict moral discipline in the community by the pastor and members of the Church.
John Knox (1513-1572)
A passionate disciple of Calvin, Knox establishes Calvinistic Protestantism as a national religion of Scotland. He left a powerful legacy within the Calvinist or reformed branch of Protestantism, a political legacy known as Presbyterianism.
Henry VIII (1491-1547)
In 1533, Henry was excommunicated by the pope for marrying Anne Boleyn and having the archbishop of Canterbury sanction the divorce of his first wife, Catherine. In 1534, Henry had a Parliament past an act appointing the king and his successor’s supreme head of the Church of England, establishing an independent national Anglican Church.
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“Protestant Reformation.” – Theopedia, an Encyclopedia of Biblical Christianity. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Nov. 2014.
“Counter-Reformation.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Jan. 2014. Web. 03 Nov. 2014.
BY: Linnaea (coordinator), Michelle (editor), Awek (media), Joyce (researcher)